Development of a vegetable drink based on
coconut milk (Cocos nucifera), pistachio
(Pistacia vera) and maple syrup (Acer
saccharum) as a source of fiber, protein and
Desarrollo de una bebida vegetal a base de leche de coco (Cocos
nucifera), pistacho (Pistacia vera) y sirope de arce (Acer
saccharum) como aporte de fibra, proteína y calcio
Luis Eduardo Zuñiga Moreno
Sandra Maria Chavez Mora
Ahmed El-Salous
Abstract: This experimental work developed a vegetable drink from
coconut milk, pistachios and maple syrup to take advantage of the
nutritional benefits contained in each ingredient. A completely
randomized design (CRD) was used, employing an Analysis of
Variance and Tukey's test, three beverage treatments (B1, B2 and B3)
with four replicates, modifying the amounts of coconut milk,
pistachios and maple syrup. Calcium content was determined by
atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The treatment that obtained the
highest calcium content was B3, with a statistical mean of
638.43±15.10 mg/kg, followed by B2 with a mean of 538.87±24.14
mg/kg, and finally B1 with a mean of 430.48±28.34 mg/kg. The
results of the protein and fiber content analysis for the treatment with
the highest calcium content (B3) were 3.95% and 2.75%, respectively.
Microbiological analyses were also performed on B3. INEN Standard
2337 was used as a reference for the determination of the
microbiological characteristics of juices, pulps, concentrates, nectars,
fruit and vegetable drinks. All parameters evaluated in the vegetable
drink met the requirements established by the reference standard,
indicating that the product was produced under adequate hygienic
conditions and is suitable for human consumption.
Keywords: bromatological analysis, lactose free, Kjeldahl, technical
standard, technical norm
Edwards Deming Higher Technological
Institute. Quito - Ecuador
October - December
Dates of receipt
Received: May 11, 2023
Approved: July 117, 2023
vol. 1. Num. 19. 2023.
pp. 38-47
Correspondence author
Creative Commons License
Creative Commons License, Attribution-
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
Ing. Maestría en Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Instituto de Investigación “Dr. Jacobo Bucaram”, Universidad Agraria del Ecuador,
Guayaquil, , lzuniga@ uagraria.edu.ec, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1143-9022
Ingeniera Agroindustrial, Universidad Agraria del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, sandra.chavez.mora@uagraria.edu.ec,
Instituto de Investigación “Dr. Jacobo Bucaram”, Universidad Agraria del Ecuador, eelsalous@uagraria.edu.ec, https://orcid.org/0000-
October - December vol. 1. Num. 19 - 2023
Resumen El presente trabajo experimental desarrolló una bebida
vegetal a partir de leche de coco, pistachos y sirope de arce para
aprovechar los beneficios nutricionales que contiene cada ingrediente.
Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar (DCA), empleando un
Análisis de Varianza y prueba de Tukey, se constituyeron tres
tratamientos de bebida (B1, B2 y B3) con cuatro repeticiones,
modificando las cantidades de leche de coco, pistachos y sirope de
arce. La determinación del contenido de calcio se realizó mediante
espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El tratamiento que obtuvo
mayor contenido de calcio fue B3, con una media estadística de
638.43±15.10 mg/kg, seguido por B2 con una media de 538.87±24.14
mg/kg, y por último B1 con una media de 430.48±28.34 mg/kg. Los
resultados de los análisis del contenido de proteína y fibra al
tratamiento de mayor presencia de calcio (B3) fueron 3.95% y 2.75%,
respectivamente. Así mismo se realizaron análisis microbiológicos a
B3. Se utilizó como referencia la Norma INEN 2337 para la
determinación de las características microbiológicas de jugos, pulpas,
concentrados, néctares, bebidas de frutas y vegetales. Todos los
parámetros evaluados en la bebida vegetal cumplieron con los
requisitos establecidos por la normativa de referencia, lo que indica
que el producto se elaboró con las condiciones higiénicas adecuadas
y es apto para el consumo humano.
Palabras clave: análisis bromatológicos, libre de lactosa, Kjeldahl,
norma técnica
The growing demand for functional foods has led to the development
of innovative and nutritious beverages that offer not only hydration but
also additional health benefits. Consumers are looking for beverages
that go beyond traditional options, provide essential nutrients, and
promote overall wellness. In response to this demand, the present study
focuses on the development of a plant-based beverage that combines
the goodness of coconut milk, pistachios and maple syrup to provide a
rich source of fiber, protein and calcium.
Coconut milk (Cocos nucifera) has gained popularity as a plant-based
alternative to cow's milk due to its creamy texture and distinctive flavor.
It is naturally lactose-free, making it suitable for people with lactose
intolerance (Edem and Elijah, 2016). Coconut milk is also known for
its high fiber content, which aids in digestion and promotes satiety
(Priya, 2016). In addition, it contains essential minerals such as
calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, which contribute to bone health
(Debmandal and Mandal, 2011). The unique combination of nutrients
in coconut milk makes it a valuable ingredient for the development of
functional beverages.
Development of a vegetable drink based on coconut milk (Cocos nucifera), pistachio (Pistacia
vera) and maple syrup (Acer saccharum) as a source of fiber, protein and calcium
Pistachios (Pistacia vera) are a highly valued raw material for their
nutritional profile and potential health benefits. They are an excellent
source of plant-based protein, due to the fact that they contain all the
essential amino acids required by the human body (Mandalari et al.,
2021). Pistachios are also rich in dietary fiber, contributing to digestive
health and promoting satiety (Syrine et al., 2019). Furthermore,
pistachios are a natural source of several vitamins and minerals,
including calcium, which is crucial for maintaining bone strength and
preventing osteoporosis (D'Evoli et al., 2015). Additionally, therapeutic
potential has been evidenced by evaluating the antioxidant activity and
anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols present in pistachio
(Paterniti et al., 2017). The incorporation of this nut in a vegetable
beverage can improve its protein and fiber content while providing
additional health-promoting properties.
Maple syrup (Acer saccharum) is a natural sweetener derived from the
sap of maple trees. Aside from its distinctive flavor profile, maple syrup
offers potential health benefits as a source of essential nutrients. It
contains several antioxidants that possess anti-inflammatory properties
(Ramadan, Gad and Farag, 2021). Maple syrup also contains minerals
such as calcium, potassium and magnesium, which play vital roles in
several physiological processes, including nerve function and muscle
contraction (Mohammed, Sibley, Guillaume, Abdulwali, Abdulwali,
2022). Including maple syrup in the formulation of the vegetable
beverage not only improves its taste, but also contributes to the overall
nutritional composition.
The combination of coconut milk, pistachios and maple syrup in a
plant-based beverage has the potential to provide a balanced blend of
fiber, protein and calcium. Fiber is known for its role in promoting
digestive health, regulating blood sugar levels, and supporting weight
management (Aleixandre and Miguel, 2016). Protein is essential for
muscle development, tissue repair, and overall body growth and
maintenance (Landi et al, 2016). Calcium is a critical mineral necessary
for strong bones and teeth, as well as for proper nerve and muscle
function (Owen et al, 2016).
By incorporating these natural and nutrient-rich ingredients, the
vegetable beverage developed aims to provide consumers with a
refreshing and nutritious beverage option. This study seeks to evaluate
October - December vol. 1. Num. 19 - 2023
the calcium content of three formulations of the beverage, and the
treatment that presented the highest calcium content was analyzed for
fiber and protein content, in addition to microbiological analysis
according to the requirements of the NTE INEN 2338:2008 standard.
Materials and methods
Formulation of the beverage
Table 1 shows the composition of the proposed beverage. Three
formulations were devised, varying the contents of coconut milk (Cocos
nucifera), pistachio (Pistacia vera) and maple syrup (Acer saccharum)
with the intention of finding the composition with the highest calcium
content. Subsequent to this treatment, protein, fiber and microbiological
requirements were analyzed.
Table 1. Vegetable drink formulations
B2 (%)
B3 (%)
Coconut milk
Pistachio (powdered)
Maple syrup
Sodium benzoate
The beverage production process began with the selection of the raw
materials, which were in optimum condition, i.e., free of evident signs
of deterioration and disease, as well as residues or pests. Next, they
were washed with abundant potable water in order to discard the
physical, chemical and microbiological residues adhered to the surface.
This was followed by a disinfection stage using a 5000 ppm solution of
sodium hypochlorite, and rinsed with abundant potable water. The
pistachios were then soaked at room temperature for 12 hours,
achieving a hydration of over 90%. After the soaking time, the hydrated
pistachios were removed and washed with abundant water. All the
ingredients (except the preservative) were placed in an industrial
blender, this operation was carried out until the product had a uniform
and homogeneous appearance, at the end of which the preservative
(sodium benzoate) was added. A sieving stage was carried out using
sieves with particle sizes of 1500 µm and 900 µm, with the intention of